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Illinois Flora

Flora of the Southern Illinois Floristic Regions

Much of Southern Illinois is in the Interior Low Plateau Province. This area is diverse geologically (map of Illinois bedrock), elevationally and floristically and can be divided into Divisions as shown on the map by J. A. Bier (Illinois Geological Survey):

 9. Southern Till Plain Division
10. Wabash Border Division
11. Ozark Division
12. Lower Mississippi River Bottomlands Division
13. Shawnee Hills Divison
14. Coastal Plain Division
It is convenient to look at the flora of these regions based on plant communities.  The following categories are according to Voigt and Mohlenbrock (1964, Plant Communities of Southern Illinois) below which are shown some botanical representatives.

The Lowland Series

Deep Swamps (mostly 14, Costal Plain Division)
  1. Acer rubrum (red maple) photos
  2. Acorus calamus (sweet flag) photos
  3. Carex frankii (Frank's sedge) photos
  4. Carex grayi (Gray's sedge) photos
  5. Celtis laevigata (sugarberry) photos
  6. Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)  photos
  7. Cuscuta gronovii (dodder) photos
  8. Decodon verticillatum (water willow) photos
  9. Hibiscus lasiocarpus (swamp mallow) photos
  10. Itea virginica (Virginia willow) photos
  11. Justicia americana (water willow) photos
  12. Lemna minor (duckweed) photos
  13. Limnobium spongia (sponge plant) photos
  14. Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower) photos
  15. Nyssa aquatica (tupelo) photos
  16. Rosa palustris (swamp rose) photos
  17. Sparganium androcladum (bur-reed) photos
  18. Taxodium distichum (bald cypress) photos
Bottomland Forests (1c, Ozark Division e.g. La Rue Pine Hills; 10 Wabash Border Division)
  1. Acer saccharinum (silver maple) photos
  2. Agastache nepetoides (giant hyssop) photos
  3. Arisaema dracontium (green dragon) photos
  4. Aristolochia tomentosa (Dutchman's pipe-vine) photos
  5. Asclepias perennis (swamp milkweed) photos
  6. Bignonia capreolata (cross-vine) photos
  7. Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) photos
  8. Campsis radicans (Virginia creeper) photos
  9. Carya illinoinensis (pecan) photos
  10. Eragrostis spectabilis (tumble-grass) photos
  11. Frasera caroliniensis (columbo) photos
  12. Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust) photos
  13. Hydrophyllum macrophyllum (large leaf waterleaf) photos
  14. Hypericum mutilum (dwarf St. John's-wort) photos
  15. Lindera benzoin (spicebush) photos
  16. Lindernia dubia (false pimpernel) photos
  17. Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife) photos
  18. Menispermum canadense (moonseed) photos
  19. Mimulus alatus (winged monkey flower) photos
  20. Morus rubra (red mulberry) photos
  21. Panicum boscii (panic grass) photos
  22. Penthorum sedoides (ditch stonecrop) photos
  23. Phoradendron leucarpum (mistletoe) photos
  24. Pilea pumila (clearweed) photos
  25. Platanus occidentalis (sycamore) photos
  26. Populus deltoides (cottonwood) photos
  27. Quercus falcata var. pagodaefolia) (cherrybark oak) photos
  28. Quercus palustris (pin oak) photos
  29. Ranunuculus septentrionalis (swamp buttercup) photos
  30. Saururus cernuus (lizard tail) photos
  31. Silene regia (royal catchfly) photos
  32. Smallanthus uvedalia (bear's foot, yellow leafcup) photos
  33. Smilax hispida (greenbriar) photos
  34. Spigelia marilandica (Indian Pink) photos
  35. Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy) photos

Ravines
  1. Anemone [Hepatica] americana (liver-leaf) photos
  2. Aplectrum hyemale (puttyroot orchid) photos
  3. Asimina triloba (pawpaw) photos
  4. Collinsia verna (blue-eyed Mary) photos
  5. Corallorhiza wisteriana (coral-root orchid) photos
  6. Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches) photos
  7. Dodecatheon frenchii / meadia (shooting-star) photos
  8. Erythronium americanum (trout lily) photos
  9. Goodyera pubescens (rattlesnake orchid) photos
  10. Lindera benzoin (spicebush) photos
  11. Mitchella repens (partridge berry) photos
  12. Mitella diphylla (bishop's cap) photos
  13. Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot) photos
  14. Saxifraga forbesii (Forbes' saxifrage) photos
  15. Stylophorum diphyllum (celandine poppy) photos
  16. Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut) photos
  17. Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone) photos
  18. Trillium recurvatum (trillium, wake robin) photos

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Seepages

  1. Allium canadense (wild onion) photos
  2. Alisma plantago-aquatica (water plantain) photos
  3. Carex crinita (sedge) photos
  4. Carex frankii (Frank's sedge) photos
  5. Chelone glabra (turtlehead) photos
  6. Eleocharis acicularis (spike rush) photos
  7. Hedyotis pusilla (small bluets) photos
  8. Iris fulva (swamp red iris) photos
  9. Isoetes butleri (quillwort) photos
  10. Ludwigia alternifolia (seedbox) photos
  11. Sagittaria latifolia (arrowhead) photos
Wet Roadsides and Ditches (including some weedy species)
  1. Amaranthus arenicola (Torey's amaranth) photos
  2. Ammannia coccinea (long-leaved ammania) photos
  3. Bidens aristosa (swamp marigold, tickseed sunflower) photos
  4. Chamaesyce maculata (milk spurge) photos
  5. Commelina communis (common day flower) photos
  6. Convolvulus sepium (American bindweed) photos
  7. Echinochloa crus-gali (barnyard grass) photos
  8. Eclipta prostrata (yerba de tajo) 
  9. Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge) photos
  10. Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed) photos
  11. Lapsana communis (nipplewort) photos
  12. Lindernia dubia (false pimpernel) photos
  13. Lobelia syphilitica (blue cardinal-flower) photos
  14. Myosotis arvensis (field scorpion grass) photos
  15. Penthorum sedoides (ditch stonecrop) photos
  16. Physalis angulata (ground cherry) photos
  17. Ranunculus acris (tall buttercup) photos
  18. Rorippa sylvestris (creeping yellowcress) photos
  19. Rotala ramosior (tooth-cup) photos
  20. Rumex crispus (curly dock) photos
  21. Scutellaria lateriflora (mad-dog skullcap) photos
  22. Trifolium pratense (red clover) photos
  23. Valerianella radiata (corn salad) photos
  24. Verbesina alternifolia (yellow ironweed) photos
  25. Vicia sativa (common vetch) photos
The Upland Series

Sandstone rock ledges, e.g. Ferne Cliffe State Park, Giant City State Park, Garden of the Gods State Park with Pounds sandstone.

Limestone rock ledges, e.g. Pine Hills, showing Bailey limestone with chert [Devonian], Fountain Bluff, Little Grand Canyon.
  1. Antennaria plantaginifolia (pussy-toes) photos
  2. Aquilegia canadensis (columbine) photos
  3. Asclepias meadii (Mead's milkweed) photos
  4. Chasmanthium latifolium (sea oats) photos
  5. Cheilanthes lanosa [C. vestida] (wooly lip-fern) photos
  6. Cunila origanoides (dittany) photos
  7. Danthonia spicata (poverty oat grass) photos
  8. Heuchera micrantha (alumroot) photos
  9. Hypericum stragulum (St. Andrew's cross) photos
  10. Liatris cylindracea (blazing star) photos
  11. Juniperus virginiana (red cedar) photos
  12. Krigia biflora (false dandelion) photos
  13. Lespedeza hirta (hairy bush clover) photos
  14. Manfreda virginica (American aloe) photos
  15. Nothoscordum bivalve (false wild garlic) photos
  16. Opuntia humifusa (prickly pear cactus) photos
  17. Phlox bifida (cleft phlox) photos
  18. Polytrichum commune (hairy cap moss, often found with Cladina rangiferina, a lichen) photos
  19. Sedum pulchellum (widow's cross) photos
  20. Stylosanthes biflora (pencil flower) photos
  21. Ulmus alata (winged elm) photos
  22. Vaccinium arboreum (farkleberry) photos
  23. Vaccinium pallidum (low-bush blueberry) photos
  24. Woodsia obtusa (woods fern) photos
Moist Rock Walls
  1. Asplenium rhizophyllum (walking-fern)  photos
  2. Asplenium pinnatifidum (spleenwort)  photos
  3. Conacephalum conicum (a liverwort)  photos
  4. Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)  photos
  5. Huperzia lucidula (shining clubmoss)  photos
  6. Polypodium virginianum (Virginia polypody)  photos
  7. Osmunda regalis (royal fern)  photos
  8. Pellia epiphylla (a liverwort)  photos
Cave-like Overhanging Rocks

Sink-hole Ponds (Union, Randolph, Hardin Cos.)

Bluffs along Ohio and Mississippi Rivers
  1. Aristolochia tomentosa (Dutchman's pipe-vine)  photos
  2. Bignonia capreolata (cross-vine)  photos
  3. Calycocarpum lyonii (cupseed)  photos
  4. Campsis radicans (Virginia creeper)  photos
  5. Celtis pumila (dwarf hackberry)  photos
  6. Cystopteris bulbifera (bulblet bladder-fern)  photos
  7. Cocculus carolinus (snail-seed)  photos
  8. Fraxinus quadrangulata (blue ash)  photos
  9. Pellaea atropurpurea (cliff-brake)  photos
  10. Rhamnus caroliniana (buckthorn)  photos
  11. Sicyos angulatus (bur cucumber)  photos
Lowland Grass Community (9, Southern Till Plain Division, tallgrass prairie; only a few shown).  

For other web pages on Illinois prairies, see list compiled by Ken Robertson here.
  1. Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem, turkey foot)  photos
  2. Apocynum sibiricum (Indian hemp)  photos
  3. Solidago speciosa (goldenrod) [with Aster novae-angliae]  photos
  4. Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)  photos
Hill Prairies (Upland Grass; along Mississippi River, Johnson, Pope and Saline cos.)
  1. Anemone virginiana (tall anemone)  photos
  2. Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)  photos
  3. Bouteloua curtipendula (side-oats grama)  photos
  4. Chamaecrista fasciculata (partridge pea)  photos
  5. Dalea purpurea (purple prairie clover)  photos
  6. Elymus hystrix (bottlebrush grass)  photos
  7. Echinacea pallida (pale coneflower) photos 
  8. Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)  photos
  9. Glandularia [Verbena] canadensis (wild vervain)  photos
  10. Liatris cylindracea (blazing star)  photos
  11. Quercus stellata (post oak)  photos
  12. Sisyrinchium angustifolium (blue-eyed grass)  photos
  13. Physostegia virginiana (false dragonhead) photos 
  14. Rhus copallina (dwarf sumac)  photos
  15. Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)  photos
  16. Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)  photos
  17. Ruellia humilis (wild petunia)  photos
  18. Tradescantia virginiana (spiderwort)  photos
  19. Verbesina alternifolia (yellow ironweed)  photos

Upland Forests (13a and b, Shawnee Hills Division)

Trees
  1. Acer saccharum (sugar maple)  photos
  2. Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, ironwood)  photos
  3. Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)  photos
  4. Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)  photos
  5. Carya glabra (pignut hickory)  photos
  6. Celtis occidentalis (hackberry)  photos
  7. Diospyros virginiana (persimmon)  photos
  8. Fagus grandifolia (beech)  photos
  9. Juglans nigra (black walnut)  photos
  10. Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar)  photos
  11. Nyssa sylvatica (black gum)  photos
  12. Ostrya virginiana (hop hornbeam)  photos
  13. Prunus serotina (black cherry)  photos
  14. Quercus alba (white oak)  photos
  15. Quercus velutina (black oak)  photos
  16. Quercus macrocarpa (overcup oak)  photos
  17. Quercus muehlenbergii (yellow chestnut oak)  photos
  18. Sassafras albidum (sassafras)  photos
  19. Tilia americana (American basswood)  photos
  20. Ulmus americana (American elm)  photos
  21. Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)  photos
Shrubs
  1. Corylus americana (hazelnut)  photos
  2. Hydrangea arborescens (wild hydrangea)  photos
  3. Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac)  photos
  4. Sambucus canadensis (elderberry)  photos
  5. Viburnum rufidulum (southern black haw, rusty nannyberry) photos
Herbs
  1. Adiantum pedatum (maidenhair fern)  photos
  2. Athyrium felix-femina (lady fern)  photos
  3. Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern) photos 
  4. Botrychium dissectum var. obliquum (grape fern)  photos
  5. Carex davisii (sedge)  photos
  6. Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade)  photos
  7. Cynoglossum officinale (common hound's-tongue)  photos
  8. Epifagus virginiana (beechdrops)  photos
  9. Geranium maculatum (wild geranium)  photos
  10. Liparis liliifolia (orchid)  photos
  11. Maianthemum racemosum (false Solomon's seal)  photos
  12. Monarda bradburiana (beebalm)  photos
  13. Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe)  photos
  14. Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)  photos
  15. Phryma leptostachya (lopseed)  photos
  16. Ranunculus recurvatus (recurved buttercup)  photos
  17. Triosteum angustifolium (yellow flowered horse gentian)  photos

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